If cervical cancer is detected early, treatment success rates are higher. Referral to a gynecologist or physician specialist female reproductive system will be given if the pap smear shows abnormal cells in the cervix. In most cases, the presence of abnormal cells does not mean cervical cancer. References to the gynecologist is also provided in case of abnormal vaginal bleeding to see if there are any abnormal changes in the cervix.
- Colposcopy procedures. Colposcopy is an examination of the cervix to look for abnormalities. The doctor will use a special magnifying glass to see the vulva, vagina, and cervix. This process uses a microscope with a small light at the end. If visible abnormalities in the colposcopy, a small sample of tissue is removed from the cervix and examined under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells in it. This entire process will be done by a doctor gynecologist.
- Biopsy Cone (Cone Biopsy). A minor surgical procedure called a cone biopsy (cone biopsy) may be necessary. The term used cone biopsy of tissue taken from the cone-shaped cervix. The cells of this tissue will be examined under a microscope to check whether there are cancer cells. This procedure is done in the hospital with the use of local anesthesia. The side effects are bleeding that may occur up to one month after surgery. In addition, the menstrual period may also be painful. If cervical cancer cells and cells contain potentially cancerous, further action is needed to ensure that all the abnormal cells lifted.
- Circular electric wire. This procedure will use a thin wire electrified small voltage to take tissue samples for further examination.
Benefits Inspection More
With the biopsy, the patient can find out if cervical cancer and whether it has spread. If indeed there is a cervical cancer, further investigation is needed to determine the extent of spread of cancer, among others:
- Blood tests: conducted to check the condition of the liver, kidney, and bone marrow.
- Examination of the pelvic organs: the uterus, vagina, rectum, and bladder will be examined whether there is cancer.
- CT scan: scanning the condition of the body parts in the computer to obtain three-dimensional images. Useful to see the growing cancer and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
- Chest X-ray: to see if the cancer has spread to the lungs.
- MRI scan: scanning wearing a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce images of the body. Useful to see if the cancer has spread and how far it has spread.
- PET scan: if combined with CT scan, this procedure can see the spread of cancer and also check a person’s response to treatment is done.
Stage Cervical Cancer
Stage of cancer can be determined after all the tests are completed. Stadium used to describe how far the cancer has spread. If the higher stage of cancer, the spread of which occurred more widely. Here is the stage of cervical cancer by spreading:
- Stage 0: pre-cancer stage. There are no cancer cells in the cervix, but there are biological changes that have the potential to become cancerous. This stage is often referred to as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or carcinoma in situ (CIS).
- Stage 1: The cancer is still in the cervix and has not spread.
- Stage 2: the cancer has spread beyond the cervix and surrounding tissues. But it has not reached the pelvic wall or the bottom of the vagina.
- Stage 3: The cancer has spread to the walls of the stage and / or to the bottom of the vagina.
- Stage 4: The cancer has spread to the bowel, bladder, or other organs, like the lungs.
Cervical Cancer Types
By detecting the type of cervical cancer patient pathway will help the process of treatment and proper handling. There are two types of cervical cancer, namely:
- Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cervical cancer that begins in the cells of the outer layer of the cervix thin and flat (squamous cells) that protrude into the vagina. The majority of cases of cervical cancer that arises is of this type.
- Adenocarcinoma, is a type of cervical cancer that begins in the glandular cells shaped column at the cervical canal.