The interest in stem cells or stem cells clearly increased in recent decades. That’s because the potential of stem cells is very promising for the treatment of various diseases that lead to new hope in the treatment of various diseases. In this paper will discuss the definition of stem cell, stem cell types and nature of, and the potential for its use for a variety of diseases.
The initial cell or cell any or stem cells or stem cells even called cell God is what is expected to be the key to the answers of all human diseases, such as burns, flesh is missing or broken, heart blood vessels are fragile, fractures, cancer, and even to form a new human (human cloning). Remarkably, using embryonic cells, it can be made not just one, not two, but dozens, maybe even thousands of clones of yourself, and imagine the amount to make millions of organic army !!! (For those who warmongering)
Why are stem cells? The term stem cell itself was introduced by histolog Russia, Alexander Maksimov, in 1908. He theorized that there is one kind of stem cells that will develop into various types of blood cells, such as into red blood cells, white blood cells, and others. The new theory ultimately proved 70 years later. These cells have the characteristics are able to divide continuously, and does not have cleavage specifications, but with the right iduksi, stem cells would be splitting into the desired cells such as heart cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, and so on.
That’s why stem cells is referred to as a cell gods, or the source of all cells in the human individual. There are different kinds of stem cells, embryonic stem cells, bone marrow, placenta, fat tissue, even a woman’s menstrual blood. Because of varying shapes stem cells, then the variety of all cells of the body can be cured, especially to replace pancreatic cells, kidney cells and even heart cells. Even in Indonesia alone, stem cells in therapy has been applied to the patient’s Cipto Mangunkusumo cardiac infarction.
NATURE – NATURE OF STEM CELL
The ability to differentiate into other cells (differentiate). In this case the stem cells capable of developing into various types of mature cells, such as nerve cells, heart muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, pancreatic cells, and others.
Ability to renew or regenerate themselves (self-regenerate / self-renew). In this case the stem cells can make copies of the exact same cells themselves through cell division.
TYPES OF STEM CELL
Based on the potency or ability to differentiate
Based on the ability to differentiate, a stem cell is divided into:
Can differentiate into any type of cell. Included in the stem cells are totipotent zygote (fertilized egg).
Can differentiate into the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, but can not be ekstraembryonik networks such as the placenta and umbilical cord. Which include pluripotent stem cells are embryonic stem cells.
Can differentiate into many cell types. For example: hematopoietic stem cells.
Can produce only one type of cell. But in contrast to non-stem cell, stem cell unipoten have a nature can renew or regenerate themselves (self-regenerate / self-renew)
Stem cells are found in various tissues of the body. Based on the source, the stem cells are divided into:
1. Zygote. Ie at the stage shortly after the sperm meets the egg
2. Embryonic stem cell. Taken from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst (embryo consisting of 50 150 cells, approximately day 5 post-fertilization). Embryonic stem cells are usually obtained from leftover embryos used in IVF (in vitro fertilization). But current techniques have been developed taking embryonic stem cells does not harm the embryo, so that they can continue to live and grow. For the future it may be able to reduce the ethical controversy of the embryonic stem cell.
3. Fetus. Fetus can be obtained from the abortion clinic.
4. Stem cell cord blood. Blood is taken from the placenta and umbilical cord immediately after birth. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood. (Mirror of Medicine World No. 153, 2006) is a kind of center of hematopoietic stem cell, and there is classification of these types of stem cells into adult stem cell.
5. Adult stem cell. Taken from adult tissue, among others, from:
a. Bone marrow.
There are two types of stem cells from bone marrow:
– Hematopoietic stem cell. Aside from umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells also can be obtained from peripheral blood.
– Stromal stem cells or also called mesenchymal stem cells.
b. Other networks in adults as in:
– Adipocytes (fat tissue)
– Skeletal muscle
Adult stem cells have the plasticity, meaning that in addition to differentiate into cells that match the tissue of origin, adult stem cells can also differentiate into other tissue cells. For example: neural stem cells can turn into blood cells, or stromal stem cells from bone marrow can turn into heart muscle cells, and so on.