Stem cells is an undifferentiated cell and has a very high potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Stem cells also function as a repair system for the body to replace cells that have been damaged for the sake of survival of the organism. When stem cells split, the new cell has the potential to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, misalnyasel muscle, red blood cells or brain cells. ,
Stem cells have two important characteristics that are very different from other cells:
Stem cells are the cells with yet functional specialization but can renew themselves by cell division even after being inactive for a long period
In certain situations, stem cells can be induced to become cells with a specific function such as cell tissue or organ cells that has its own job Padasumsum bones. g and umbilical cord blood (English: Umbilical cord blood) stem cells regularly divide and repair damaged tissue, however in other organs such as the pancreas or liver, cleavage only occurs under certain conditions
Various stem cells (stem cells)
Stem cells can be classified based on the potential of these cells and by origin.
based on the potential
Air-totipotensi stem cells (toti = total) are stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into all types of cells, namely extraembryonic cells, somatic cells, and sex cells. These cell types can grow into a new organism when given adequate maternal support. Bertotipotensi stem cells derived from embryonic stem cells, the result of fertilization of an egg by a sperm cell.
Air-stem cell pluripotency (pluri = plural) are cells that can differentiate into any cell type in the body, but can not form an organism parent baru.Sel air-multipotensi are cells that can differentiate into several types of mature cells.
Air-unipotensi stem cells (uni = single) are stem cells that can only produce one specific cell type, but have the ability to renew themselves that are not owned by the cells that are not stem cells.
is based on origin
Embryonic stem cells (embryonic stem cells)
These stem cells are taken from embryos at the blastocyst stage (5-7 days after fertilization).
The inner cell mass grouped and contain embryonic stem cells.
Cells were isolated from the inner cell mass and secarain vitro cultured.
Embryonic stem cells can be directed to become any type of cell found in the adult organism, such as seldarah cells, muscle cells, liver cells, kidney cells, and other cells.
- Germ cell / seed embryonic (embryonic germ cells)
Germ cell / seeds (such as sperm / ovum) embryonic stem / primordial (primordial germ cells) and precursor of germ cells diploid there is a moment in embryos before they are associated with somatic cell Gond and then into the cell Germina the germ cells of embryonic human / human embryonic germ cells ( hEGCs) including stem cells derived from primordial germ cells from 5-9 week-old fetus. [stem cells have the properties of this type pluripotens
- Fetal stem cells
Fetal stem cells are primitive cells that can be found in the organs of the fetus (fetus) such as fetal hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor pancreas gland. Fetal neural stem cells found in fetal brain showed the ability to differentiate into neurons and glial cells (supporting cells in the central nervous system). Blood, placenta, and fetal umbilical cord is rich in hematopoietic stem cells of fetal.
- Mesenchymal stem cells
Adult stem cells (adult stem cells) [
Adult stem cells have two characteristics. The first characteristic is these cells can proliferate for a long period to renew itself. The second characteristic, such cells can differentiate to produce specialized cells that have the morphological characteristics and special functions.
- Hematopoietic stem cells
One kind of adult stem cells are hematopoietic stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells), which blood-forming stem cells: are able to form red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets healthy. Source of hematopoietic stem cells are marrow: bone, peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. Hematopietik stem cell formation occurs in the early stages of embryogenesis, namely from the mesoderm and stored at a specific site in the embryo
- Mesenchymal stem cells
Mesenchymal stem cells / mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be found in bone marrow stroma, periosteum, fat, and skin. MSC multipontensi including stem cells that can differentiate into bone cells, muscle, ligaments, tendons, and fat. However, there is some evidence to suggest that most of the MSC is pluripotency so that not only can turn into mesodermal tissues but also endodermal.
- Cancer stem cells (cancer stem cells)
Cancer stem cells are cells that activate the oncogenic form of tumorigenesis trajectory that makes normal cells undergo initial phase of the tumor, but the cancer stem cells do not have tumorigenic properties. From the latest data, discovered the existence of cancer stem cells in various types of cancers such as leukemia, breast cancer, brain cancer, brain cancer, colon cancer and skin cancer. Stem cell pancreatic cancer have a cluster of differentiation CD44, CD24 and epithelial-specific antigen, in addition to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) / CXCR4 to migrate like stem cells normal, [sertaekspresi genetic higher than stem cells normal, such as gene BMI -1 and SHH (Sonic the hedgehog) to self-renew,
Transplantation of stem cells
A stem cell transplant can be:
- Transplantation of autologous (using the patient’s own stem cells, collected before the administration of high-dose chemotherapy)
- Transplantation of allogeneic (using stem cells from a matched donor, either with family or without a family relationship), or
- singenik transplant (using stem cells from an identical twin.
Types of stem cell transplants
According to the source of stem cell transplantation can be divided into:
- Transplantation of stem cells from bone marrow (bone marrow transplantation)
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found in the bones as large as the pubic bone, sternum, vertebrae, and ribs.
Bone marrow is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. Since the first performed approximately 30 years ago, a bone marrow transplant is used as part of treatment for leukemia, lymphoma certain type, and aplastic anemia. Because of the technique and its success rate is increasing, the use of bone marrow transplantation is now more widespread.
In this transplant procedure done quite simply, is usually in a state of teranestesitotal. The bone marrow (approximately 600 cc) were taken from the pelvic bone donor with the help of a special syringe, then the bone marrow was injected into a vein recipient.  Move the bone marrow donor and recipient embedded in the bone and the cells begin to proliferate.
In the end, if all goes well, the whole bone marrow recipient will be replaced with new bone marrow. However, bone marrow transplant procedure has drawbacks because the recipient has white blood cells destroyed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. [New bone marrow will take approximately 2-3 weeks to produce a number of white blood cells that are necessary to protect recipients against infection. A bone marrow transplant HLA matching requires at least 6/6 or 5/6. Another risk is the onset of disease GVHD, in which the bone marrow to produce new cells that are immunologically active cells resipien.Selain attack, the risk of viral contamination is higher and donor search procedure that takes a long time.
- Transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells (peripheral blood stem cell transplantation)
As well as the bone marrow, peripheral blood circulation is a source of stem cells, although the number of stem cells contained in bone marrow is not as much. To get the number of stem cells in number sufficient for a transplant, the donor is usually given granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to stimulate hematopoietic stem cells move from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. Transplantation is done by a process called aferesis. If the recipient requires hematopoietic stem cells, the process is complete blood taken from a donor and a machine separates the blood into its components, to selectively separate the stem cells and returns the rest of the blood to the donor.
Peripheral blood stem cell transplant was first successfully performed in 1986 Advantages of peripheral blood stem cell transplant is more easily obtained. Additionally, peripheral blood stem cell collection is painless and only need about 100 cc. [Another advantage, peripheral blood stem cells easier to grow. However, peripheral blood stem cells are more vulnerable, not setahan tulangSumsum bone marrow is also more complete, contains stem cells in addition there is also a support network for cell growth. Therefore, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation still need to be mixed with the bone marrow.
- Transplantation of cord blood stem cells
In the 1970s, researchers found that human umbilical cord blood contains stem cells similar to stem cells found in bone marrow. Because stem cells from bone marrow have been successfully treating patients with diseases of blood disorders life threatening such as leukemia and disorders of the immune system, the researchers believe that they are also able to use stem cells from umbilical cord blood to save lives they.
Umbilical cord blood stem cells contain a number of significant and have the advantage over stem cell transplantation of bone marrow or peripheral blood for certain patients. Transplantation of stem cells from umbilical cord blood have changed the residue from the process of birth into a resource that can save lives. A stem cell transplant cord blood was first performed in France in patients with Fanconi anemia in 1988. In 1991, cord blood transplantation in patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. Both these transplants work well. Until now it has performed approximately 3,000 cord blood transplants. (Source: wikipeadi Indonesia)