What are t cells

T Cell definition is A type of white blood cell. T-lymphocytes are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer. Also called T cell and thymocyte.

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What are helper t cells

The definition helper t cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system. They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines. These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses. They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages.

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Helper T Cells Function

Helper T cells are arguably the most important cells in adaptive immunity, as they are required for almost all adaptive immune responses. They not only help activate B cells to secrete antibodies and macrophages to destroy ingested microbes, but they also help activate cytotoxic T cells to kill infected target cells.

Th1 And Th2

The oldest known subtypes of helper T-cells are called the Th1 and Th2 types. Th1 helper T-cells bind to and activate macrophages that have swallowed invading microbes. Activation by a Th1 cell causes the macrophage to digest the microbes that it had engulfed and was storing. Th2 cells, on the other hand, interact with B cells and cause the B cells to make lots of antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that are secreted and that recognize invading pathogens. Antibodies immobilize and trap pathogens so that other immune cells can kill them.

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Th17

Th17 cells are helper T-cells that are called upon to deal with massive infections that Th1 and Th2 helper cells are not equipped to handle. Th17 helper cells are characterized by the secretion of chemicals called IL-17, IL-17F and IL-22 — the IL stands for interleukin. Many cells have receptors on their surface that are activated by these three interleukins, and so Th17 cells can activate a widespread alarm signal that results in a massive counterattack. Th17 cells are involved in defending against infections by bacteria called P. acnes, which promote acne. Th17 cells also defend against K. pneumoniae, which is the pathogen that causes pneumonia.

Treg

Helper T-cells generally activate other types of immune cells to go into battle against infections. However, regulatory T-cells called Treg cells are a category of helper T-cells that work to tune down the anti-infection activity of helper T-cells. By suppressing excessive activity of anti-infection helper T-cells, Tregs are believed to prevent autoimmune diseases — which develop when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s healthy cells — suppress allergic reactions and help a mother to tolerate the fetus that is developing inside her womb.

Tfh

The human body has lymph nodes, which are grape-like clusters of immune cells throughout the body that are like command centers that program immune cells to go into battle against foreign invaders. B cells, the cells that produce antibodies that immobilize pathogens, are activated within regions of lymph nodes called germinal centers. A category of helper T-cells called T follicular cells, or Tfh cells, are required for the formation of germinal centers in lymph nodes. Tfh cells also regulate the activation of B cells into two subtypes: those that go directly into battle making antibodies and those that become dormant, waiting to launch a quick attack the next time the same invader enters the body.

 

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