Diabetes is a chronic (chronic) disease that occurs when the pancreas (the salivary glands) does not produce enough insulin, or when the body does not effectively use insulin. Ordinary diabetes is characterized by blood sugar levels above normal. While type 2 diabetes is a diabetes caused by the body is not effective use of insulin or lack of insulin relative to blood sugar levels.
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
The cells in the human body need energy from sugar (glucose) to function normally. What usually controls blood sugar is the hormone insulin. Insulin helps cells take and use glucose from the bloodstream. If the body lacks a relative insulin, it means blood sugar levels are very much due to excessive intake so that insulin levels appear to be reduced; or the emergence of resistance to insulin in the body’s cells, blood sugar (glucose) will increase dramatically. This is what triggers and causes diabetes (diabetes mellitus).
Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in people who are overweight and lack of physical movement. Usually the lifestyle that is not actively trigger the occurrence of this disease. That’s why type 2 diabetes has long been common in adults. But now, the number of people with type 2 diabetes in children also began to increase.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes is a classic symptom, meaning it is a symptom that is always present in diabetes, either type 1 or type 2. Among them:
- Frequent urination, especially at night.
- Often feel thirsty.
- A growing hunger often.
Other symptoms that can also appear in type 2 diabetes, among others:
- Reduced muscle mass.
- Weight loss.
- Slow wounds heal or often have an infection.
- Vague views.
One by one the mystery causes diabetes mellitus type 2 began to unfold. The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers have just published their findings that there is one particular protein or hormone found in fat cells that has been shown to help regulate how blood sugar is controlled and metabolized for energy in the liver. This is said to open one way for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that affects hundreds of millions of the world’s population.
This type of diabetes is not dependent on insulin and occurs in adults, in contrast to insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes and occurs from infancy. Type 2 diabetes can be defined as a metabolic abnormality characterized by high blood glucose levels due to deficiency and insulin resistance. The ability of beta cells of the pancreas is reduced even so that the patient begins to develop diabetes, with symptoms such as eating lots (polifagia), drinking lots (polydipsia), and lots of urine (polyuria).
The number of cases of type 2 diabetes nearly tenfold cases of type 1 diabetes that occurs due to pancreatic damage since infancy. Until now it is believed that obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically already carrying the disease-carrying genes.
Two or three decades ago there was a link between obesity and type 2 diabetes, but it is not clear whether obesity triggers this type of diabetes or simply accelerates it. Research in the United States shows, people with obesity are three times more susceptible to diabetes than those who are not overweight. The older a person, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also getting bigger. 65-year-olds, for example, are more likely to be affected than those under 20.
Type 2 diabetes is also known to be closely related to hereditary factors. If in your family there is diabetes, chances are you have diabetes is quite large.
If your father or mother and your grandparents and aunt or uncle are suffering from this disease, your chances of developing Type 2 diabetes approach 85 percent. If your father and grandmother have diabetes, your risk is only 60 percent. If only moms suffer, then 22 percent of the risks for you will suffer as well.
Type 2 diabetes generally occurs in adults due to lifestyle changes, reduced physical activity, and the type of food / beverages that all fast food and soft drinks. However, currently type 2 diabetes is also found in children and adolescents in Asia.
This chronic illness is believed to cause life expectancy for sufferers ten years shorter than those of non-diabetics due to complications of coronary heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Type 2 diabetes also causes disability, such as blindness due to retinopathic complications and an increased risk of 20 times lower limb amputation. People with diabetes is easy to forget and experience impotence.
For decades researchers and doctors are faced with a mystery: not everyone who is overweight or insulin resistant has type 2 diabetes. In fact, quite a lot of people who are very fat do not get this disease. Scientists then theorize that there is an unknown factor involved in the metabolism of glucose in the liver, and perhaps the presence or absence of this element, can determine who is affected by type 2 diabetes.
In the journal Cell Metabolism May 7, 2013, HSPH researchers revealed, the scientific world has long known that one of the key events for the development of type 2 diabetes is the uncontrolled production of glucose from the liver.
“However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive,” says Gökhan S Hotamisligil, head of the Department of Complex Genetics and Disease, and JS Simmons, professor of genetics and metabolism at HSPH. “We have now identified aP2 as a new hormone secreted from fat cells that control this critical function.”
Experiments with mice in laboratories using cutting-edge technology found that if excessive amount of aP2, diabetes develops. Conversely, if this hormone is blocked or switch-off, the production of glucose from the liver can be controlled better so that the manifestation of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases can be prevented.
The ability of an organ-in this case fatty tissue-is so direct and decisive in controlling the actions of other organs, namely the liver, is very interesting, says Hotamisligil. “We suspect the communication system between fatty tissue and liver has evolved to help fat cells give command to the liver to supply the body with glucose in times of nutrient deficiency. However, when enlarged fat cells lose control of this signal because of obesity, the level of aP2 in the blood rises, glucose is thrust into the bloodstream and can not be cleared by other tissues. The result is high blood glucose levels and diabetes 2. ”
Professor of Faculty of Medicine UI who studied diabetes, Sidartawan Soegondo, said the findings of Harvard scientists is a significant contribution to the development of medical science. “Lately I teach that type 2 diabetes is a disease with multipatology,” he said when contacted on Tuesday (21/5). Now, in addition to pancreatic organs, type 2 diabetes is also known also triggered by the metabolism of nine other organs, including liver and kidney.