Lumbar Puncture (LP) is the insertion (insertion) of the needle into the fluid in the spinal canal (spinal canal). He termed “lumbar puncture” because the needle into the lumbar region of the spine.
Other names for a lumbar puncture (LP) including the spinal tap, spinal puncture, thecal puncture, and rachiocentesis.
Why Do Lumbar Puncture?
LP is most often done to diagnose the disease, which is to emperoleh sample of the fluid in the spinal canal (the cerebrospinal fluid) for examination.
LP can also be done to treat diseases. For example, as a way to include antibiotics, cancer drugs, or anesthetic agents into the spinal canal. Spinal fluid is sometimes issued by LP for the purpose of spinal fluid pressure reduction in patients with conditions that are not common (such as normal pressure hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension harmless).
How LP Implemented?
Patients typically lay tilted on the side for this procedure. Less often, the procedure is done while the patient is sitting. LP-lp in babies is often performed in the upright position.
After a local anesthetic is injected into a small section of the back (lumbar area), a needle inserted between the building blocks are reinforced (vertebrae) adjacent into the spinal canal. (Needles are usually placed between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae).
What To Do Next?
Pressure of spinal fluid (spinal fluid) can then be measured and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was issued for the examination.
Definition Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
CSF circulates around the brain and spinal cord or spinal cord (central nervous system). “Bathing water” was working as a supporter of the buoyancy of the brain and spinal cord (spinal cord). Support from the CSF help protect the brain from injury.
Normal CSF contains a variety of chemicals, such as proteins and sugars (glucose), and little if any cells. Spinal fluid (spinal fluid) also has a normal pressure when first extract.
Normal CSF Definitions
Normal values for the examination of the spinal fluid (spinal fluid) are as follows:
* Protein (15-45 mg / dl)
* Glucose (50-75 mg / dl)
* The number of cells (0-5 mononuclear cells)
* Initial pressure (70-180 mm)
These normal values can be changed by injury or disease of the brain, spinal cord (spinal cord) or adjacent tissues. The values are routinely evaluated during examination of spinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture. In addition, the spinal fluid (spinal fluid) were tested for infection in the microbiology laboratory.
Diseases That Diagnosed With CSF examination
Spinal fluid (CSF) obtained from lumbar puncture can be used to diagnose many important diseases such as bleeding around the brain; increasing pressure of hydrocephalus; inflammation of the brain, spinal cord (spinal cord), or adjacent tissues (encephalitis, meningitis); tumors of the brain or spinal cord, etc. Sometimes the spinal fluid (spinal fluid) may indicate diseases of the immune system, such as multiple sclerosis.
Risks Of LP
When the spinal fluid (spinal fluid) incurred during the LP, the risks include headache, brain herniation, bleeding, and infection. Each of these complications are not common with the exception of headache, which can arise from many hours to one day after LP. Headaches occur less frequently if the patient remains lying flat 1-3 hours after the procedure.
Benefits Of LP
The benefits of LP depends on the exact situation for which he has done, but the LP can provide lifesaving information.